To learn how to repair computers, it is advised to study the CompTia A+ course. There are also exams if you are looking to get CompTia A+ certified.
There is also a good book to read from Apple called Desktop and Portable Systems that is helpful to not only studying Macs, but also to generally understanding them as a whole.
The next step to learning how to repair systems would be to learn electronics and soldering skills. The best way to learn soldering is to buy a soldering station or soldering iron and practicing on faulty motherboards.
There are also books on soldering techniques and electronics on the internet, and there are a lot of soldering guides out there for free on YouTube for example. Type in the search bar on YouTube, “soldering basics or “soldering guide” and you will be given a list of reasonable quality guides to start with.
This book would is not only good for learning electronics but also if looking to learn computer repair as a whole. All computers are electronic devices, and this book covers the specifics of electronic devices.
Soldering stations and soldering irons are used mainly to solder components , or to solder two wires together, etc.
To make learning easier, I have revealed the most common faults on computers.
In first place are hard drive faults. The probability for the hard drive to fail is very high. I could not tell you the exact number because I do not gather statistical data on this, but hard drive faults are extremely common. There is a possibility to fix some hard drives with bad sectors by writing zeros to the disk using a Mac computer.
In second place would be virus infections. I placed virus infections in second place because there are a lot of virus infections that do not go to repair engineers because they can be fixed by reinstalling OS, and this easy procedure can be done by almost anybody.
In third place are motherboard faults. Motherboard faults can involve capacitors, MOSFETs, resistors, induction, DC Jacks, etc.
In fourth place are RAM faults. RAM faults are usually not very common but have a tendency to occur on older systems.
In fifth place are CPU faults. These faults are very rare. The chance gets higher that a CPU will fail is on systems where the CPU heat sink is clogged with dust. Also, when the CPU fails, it can get stuck to the heat sink. This is the first sign of a CPU fault. There is another method used to find out if the CPU is still working which is described elsewhere on this site.
In sixth place are Driver conflicts. These faults are very rare and happens only when manufacturers make unfinished driver package for hardware. These faults usually give off a blue screen.
To get the most practice, it is advised to buy a faulty desktop or laptop computer. Do not worry if you use or sell parts of it as it will cover your purchase cost. For example, on eBay, there are even laptops selling with nVidia faults. You could buy one of these laptops and try and fix them with reflowing or re-balling equipment.
You will need to get familiar with all operating systems in order to learn how to fix them correctly. Many operating systems can be installed on one computer using virtualization with software such as virtual box. If Mac OS does not work on the Virtual Box, which can sometimes happen, it can be installed on a USB stick using modified MacOS instillations (so-called Hackintosh). For example, Kaliway works on Dell 1525. iAtkos, iPC, and others.
The beauty is that you do not need a Mac laptop or desktop to run Mac OS. But there is also some disadvantages. Some devices will not work on these installations.
MAC OS is completely different from Windows, and the hardware also differs a bit. UBCD4WIN does not run on Macs, but Hiren's Boot CD does.
Personally, I do recommend getting familiar with networks and servers because a lot of businesses do need to troubleshoot them. If you can get experience with servers such as active directory, then there is a lot of profit to be made.
Truly, the best way to learn is to setup an at home server and client and check how everything works together.
As I said before, practice is the best way to learn. Many used servers can be cheaply bought on eBay.
Also, electronics are the basics of every computer system. You must learn electronics if you want to understand how computer systems work.
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