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NTFS file recovery. This is the most used file system in the world and is convenient to recover because there are countless tools which are available.
Probably, the easiest case is when files are deleted. Although, it is very important to not use the computer when the files have been deleted as to ensure that the data will not be written over. It is best to reset the computer in order to make sure that Windows will not write over anything when (Windows) shuts down.
For the HFS file system, we are able to use the Mac OS booted on a Mac, and also booted on a Macintosh. For this system, we can also use Linux in a way which is described separately.
The difficulties can be used with file permissions, and this can be managed with Linux Nautilus command as described in the article in which the link is above. There is nothing to configure or set, just use the two Nautilus windows.
There are many programs in the hard drive used for file recovery. Some of these programs are even free such as Recuva. With Recuva, there needs to be a configuration by default as it does not display a directory tree. But, it is good for the recovery of deleted files. There is an article describing how to work with Recuva here.
Hard drive information is encoded. On the hard drive disk, there is not usually ones or zeros, but signals that can be compared to audio signals The hard drive decodes these signals using algorithms. There can also be reading errors. This occurs when the hard drive seems to be working normally and the ECC process will try and correct the error. How much ECC is used can be seen with S.M.A.R.T. such as in the picture below.
The big number on the right indicates that there are serious problems on the disk surface.
Some operating system file managing programs can get stuck and not complete the copying of other files if they encounter something that can be recovered with ECC. ECC stands for error correction code. Some programs have the option to skip it such as Total Commander.
File recovery is a very complex process. I recommend checking the website, www.hddguru.com to get familiar with the hardware and with the principles on how hard drives work.
After you read the information presented, it is much easier to understand about the process in the hard drive.
If you are lucky and the hard drive is still powering on and initializing, it is advised to use a widely available file recovery software such as File Scavenger. If the hard drive does not spin, it is better to not abuse it at home or to even open it. Touching the open hard drive with your fingers can damage the disk and heads.
There is also an article on this site as to how to deal with external hard drives which can be found here. How to recover files from a Mac external hard drive is described here. How to recover files from a laptop hard drive is also described here.
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